• Genetic factors
  • Congenital abnormalities
  • Parafunctions and bad habits (mouth breathing, thumb sucking vs)
  • Early loss of teeth
  • Traumas
  • Tooth movements due to gingival activities
  • Wisdom teeth
  • Extra or missing teeth
Crowding:Misaligning of teeth creates crowding in the jaw, which leads to plaque accumulation, gingival problems and malocclusions, therefore crowding should be treated.

Deepbite:Normal amount for upper incisors to cover the lower incisors is 2-3 mm. If this amount is excessive, it is called a deepbite and needs to be treated.

Gaps between teeth (Diastema):A diastema is a space or gap between two teeth. It appears most often between the two upper front teeth. However, gaps can occur between any two teeth or amongst a group of teeth. Diastema are not esthetically appealing and needs to be treated.


Flaring of upper teeth(Over-Jet):The upper teeth project forward relative to the lower teeth.. This might be because of the forward position of the upper jaw, or backward position of lower jaw. Flaring of the front teeth, can occur for various reasons. Upper teeth are usually very prone for accidents.

Lower jaw forward position:Genetic factors might be the cause for this malocclusion. It’s advised to treat the patient as young as possible.

Open bite:It might be due to mouth breathing, thumb sucking vs. Starting the treatment as early as possible is essential.

Crossbite:Upper teeth should be closer to the cheeks and lips than the lower teeth. Any controversial biting of the teeth leads to crossbites, and it should be treated as soon as possible.

Functional Shift: The shifting of lower jaw while closing due to various reasons. If not treated, functional shifts might turn into a skeletal problem.